Facilitated Learning and Garnering Interest in Learning Using Technology for Special Education

Students in special education have strengths and weaknesses. Teachers who accommodate and modify instruction to meet student needs will have improved learning. Temple Grandin recognizes the need for accommodating learning based on student need. For example, she states students with Autism are often visual learners. They need engagement, topics of interest, art, and less reading and oral language. (TedTalk). Using technology aids in accelerating learning and developing skills by differentiating the learning, accommodating, modifying to reach every child.

Students of all abilities learn best when the subject is of interest to them, as well as the delivery method is engaging. We all can remember that “one teacher” in our childhood who was boring, monotone in delivery, and used lecture/study/paper exams to teach. Can you remember much of anything from that teacher other than trying to stay awake in the class? Research today cites evidence that facilitated learning, using technology in class, gamification, WebQuests and other interactive approaches to teaching is far more engaging and yields higher learning outcomes than lecture-based instruction. In Dr. Elana Treat’s class, she is doing just that. She uses technology to use gamification and differentiate the students’ learning. Students are so engaged in the learning that they continue to work on their assignments even on sick days. They are learning history, current events, science, math, reading, writing. They develop soft skills of problem-solving, teamwork, collaboration, communication, all within one topical study. (Hobgood, Ormsby). Not only is the teacher the facilitator of the student’s learning, she is teaching her students to take responsibility for their own learning. The students are engaged, they are learning at their ability level (whether gifted or special needs). These skills are all 21st-century skills that employers are looking for.

In addition to transforming the classroom using computers, Internet and gamification, assistive technology has improved the learning of more significant needs. E-readers, iPad apps, text through Bookshare, digital textbooks, Dragon Speak software and other assistive technology allows students the ability to learn and participate in the classroom. (Hayes). Online schools and online classes are also alternative learning opportunities. (Sabo). Google is a great resource for special education by using the voice typing in Google Drive documents or using the vast resources of add-in features to improve writing, research, and math. Students who once struggled with organizational skills now use Google calendar to keep track of due dates, Drive to save files on, complete and turn in homework. Some students use their phones or other scanning devices to upload their written homework to the Drive and then turn in their homework. Accessibility and ease of use is common with free to low-cost technology.

“Technology has made leaps in terms of bringing special education students into the general education classroom,” states Shannon McCord. (Locke). Students who once were segregated or unable to participate with peers are now excelling, have improved self-esteem and have skills which equalize them with their peers, all thanks to using the technology available to them. (O, Chris).

 

Resources

Hayes, H. (2013). How Technology Is Helping Special-Needs Students Excel. Website. Retrieved February 27, 2017. From: http://www.edtechmagazine.com/k12/article/2013/03/how-technology-helping-special-needs-students-excel

Hobgood, B., Ormsby, L. ( n.d.) Inclusion in the 21st-century classroom: Differentiating with technology. Website. Retrieved February 27, 2017. From: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/every-learner/6776

Locke, (2014). ‘Bridging the Gap’: Technology in Special Education. Website. Retrieved February 27, 2017. From: https://www.edsurge.com/news/2014-11-26-bridging-the-gap-technology-in-special-education

O, Chris. (n.d.) Technology Benefits Special Education Classrooms – And Beyond. Website. Retrieved February 27, 2017. From: https://www.speechbuddy.com/blog/iep/technology-benefits-special-education-classrooms-and-beyond/

Sabo, R. (2013). Designing an education in the 21st century. Website. Retrieved: February 27, 2017. From: http://www.onlineschools.com/blog/designing-an-education-in-the-21st-century 

TedTalk. (2013). The world needs all kinds of minds – Temple Grandin. Website. Retrieved February 27, 2017. From: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UKhg68QJlo0

 

The Teacher’s Role in the Culturally Responsive Classroom

Module 1 Writing Assignment /Culturally Responsive Instruction

The Teacher’s Role in the Culturally Responsive Classroom

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Teachers have an important role to play in the development of the lives of their students. Not only are they teaching academic rigor, they also are teaching social expectations, affecting attitudes and mindsets of their students. This role also includes teaching respect and awareness when it comes to social, racial, cultural and economic differences.

Students come to school with their own worldview. They see things from their own experiences, cultural norms and expectations. History has already made it’s footprint upon the life of the student. The student may not even recognize that footprint exists. However, the historical (recent or even generational) imprint affects expectations and thinking patterns due to race, culture, poverty. It affects the way the student sees the world around him as well as how others think of him. Experiences affirm what he knows about himself and his world or affects how others see him.

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These cultural norms also affect how students learn. For example, in African-American cultures, developing a relationship with the student is imperative before the student learns academically with the teacher. Direct eye contact with a person in authority is considered disrespectful in some cultures, whereas it is expected in most classrooms. In some cultures, a student is to sit quietly and be obedient, as compared to African-Americans who are louder and more boisterous. In the first example, a teacher may find the student withdrawn and in the other the student to be a troublemaker. The effective teacher learns what the cultural norms are with her students. She not only teaches flexibility to her students, she too learns to be flexible. Students need to develop the ability to move between their primary culture as well as the dominant culture. (Tileston, Darling 2008). The teacher facilitates the student learning that ability, by teaching how to function in the dominant culture (language, social expectations, academically), while acknowledging and valuing the primary culture.

There are many cultures to take in to consideration. Not only are there race and nationality differences, but also that of poverty. There is economic poverty but also deficit thinking, learned helplessness and low achievement. The teacher’s role is to assist the student in overcoming these obstacles and create an environment which promotes success. Failure is not an option. The teacher can model how to deal with mistakes and failures. By encouraging attempts, teaching how to learn from mistakes, possibly even learning to laugh at mistakes, the student learns how to grow emotionally.  There is so much a teacher can do to help her students be successful whether in economic poverty or emotional. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y2r55tAOXAc)

Collectivism is highly valued in a majority of the world population. The values of the family unit such as obligation, duty, tradition, harmony, family integrity and interdependence is considered more important than that of the individual in these cultures. (Tileston, Darling 2008). Americans highly value individualistic traits and therefore, teachers may not consider this mindset when planning lessons. However, this is an important belief system for teachers to take into consideration when working with students of other cultures as it affects the student’s thinking and practices within the classroom.  Teachers can support the student by implementing strategies which encourage students according to their cultural mindset. These strategies may include cooperative learning, affirmation,  inquiry-based projects and group discussions. Individualist vs. Collectivist Cultures

Vocabulary is another area that needs to be addressed when working with diverse cultures and children in poverty. Students coming from other countries, especially ELL students, will not have the vocabulary foundation necessary to understand tasks assigned. Even students who have been in the country for some time and have developed conversational English understanding may continue to have challenges with academic language, especially in middle to high school years. Pre-teaching vocabulary is crucial. It is important to be proactive and not assume all students understand the vocabulary presented. This is also true for students who live in poverty. According to a study by Hart and Risley in the 1960’s, on average, children from welfare homes had less than one-third the vocabulary as that of a child in a professional home. (The Early Catastrophe Article).

Culture is extremely important to most people. It is where we come from, our home, our roots. It is where we are accepted and affirmed. These cultures differ by traditions, practices, and belief systems. The cultural differences can either divide or enrich the lives of students. Teachers have the wonderful opportunity to enrich the lives of the students by teaching cultural understanding in the classroom. Students can share their language, talk about their traditions with their peers, compare and contrast holiday traditions. This allows the teacher to teach relationship building skills, flexibility, caring, open dialogue.  One of the most exciting examples I have seen recently is a middle school assignment called, “Write Your Story.” In the assignment, the students are given a lengthy time to basically build their own family tree. They write and present to the class who they are, where they come from, share traditions, stories of family members and create presentations in which to share their story with their peers. This assignment has allowed students to delve deeper into their family history and affirmed their story as well as their culture. It also allows opportunities for others to learn more about the culture of their peers.

The teacher’s role in a culturally responsive classroom has no place for prejudice towards racial differences, cultural differences, poverty, stereotypes, learned helplessness, or deficit thinking. Instead, her role is to create a classroom where differences are appreciated, and culture is honored. Students who live in poverty have hope and are supported. Students are expected to participate, learn and grow. There is no room for failure, meanness or hate. The teacher envisions their student successful and dreams are fulfilled. Teachers cannot change the world, but they can change one life at a time.

Additional video clip resources can be found at Edutopia: Five-Minute Film Festival: Culturally Responsive Teaching

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References

Five-Minute Film Festival: Culturally Responsive Teaching. (2014, September 26). Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/five-minute-film-festival-culturally-responsive-teachingGay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Individualist vs. Collectivist Cultures. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rkUVe6KzAJU

Poverty in the Classroom. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y2r55tAOXAcThe Early Catastrophy. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://www.aft.org//sites/default/files/periodicals/TheEarlyCatastrophe.pdf

The Early Catastrophy. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://www.aft.org//sites/default/files/periodicals/TheEarlyCatastrophe.pdf

Tileston, D. W., & Darling, S. K. (2008). Why culture counts: Teaching children of poverty. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

 

Special Education in the Middle School Setting

 

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I’ve been off the Blogging grid for quite some time now. After my last blog, I was transferred from being an elementary special education teacher to a secondary special education teacher, especially working with MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS! YIKES! I need to watch my words. Things I said I would “never do” always come back to haunt me. I NEVER wanted to work with those hormonal, drama filled kiddos who were all taller than me. Give me the kiddos who adore their teacher, love the challenge of learning to read and do math. I certainly did not want to be thrown back into middle and high school again. It really wasn’t my thing when I was a student! …BUT GOD! God had other plans. Once again, He proved He had a good plan when He gave me a new assignment.

Working on the secondary side has been hard work, lots of overtime, a ton more paperwork, stressful, yes–hormonal and drama filled (mine and theirs, just kidding) but oh, so rewarding! I work with a phenomenal team, we have a wonderful group of students we work with and the challenge has been great! I love working with these students! The opportunities to make a difference in their lives has been so rewarding. The pace of their growth has increased exponentially! Oh, did I mention I had to remember how to do Algebra all over again?

This challenge brought about other changes as well. I am now a college student again. Hopefully by the end of this year, I will have my masters degree and be several credits into my Ed.D in Educational Leadership.  But enough about me.

Throughout the last two years of working with special education students in middle and high school, I have come to recognize an area of need that is common to many if not most special education students. It is the area of Executive Functioning (EF). I began to recognize that my students were all having difficulties with keeping up with homework assignments, organizing their materials, using good study habits, having difficulties with test taking, overactive or underactive, attention, impulse control, memory and other skills associated with EF. At first, I thought it was due to immaturity or lack of motivation, but as I researched it (this topic will be part of my thesis as well), I learned that these were actually symptoms of a much larger problem and were all related to their disability. The disabilities most often were found in students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Autism (ASD), Asperger Syndrome (Asp). It was also in one form or another with most every other diagnosis and it affected nearly every core class they were in.

As the year progressed last year, I began to collect lesson plans which addressed these areas in order to teach skills and strategies. Over the summer, I was given the opportunity to create a Learning Strategies class with a syllabus and course outline. My co-worker was very helpful as well. She had started a collection of her own. We bounced ideas off of each other throughout the year. Once I started college, I learned that the area of Executive Functioning, Brain Based learning, Visual Thinking, metacognition and using Multiple Learning Styles in the classroom were all research based methods which have proven to be successful. Here we were already using many of the strategies and had developed lessons specifically addressing EF weaknesses.

I also began to see progress in the lives of my students. I created a framework for my students to work within, had clear expectations, scaffolded lessons, monitored the students for success, held them accountable for their work. Most importantly, we developed a relationship where they knew I value them and want to see them successful. And successful they are!

Students who were failing 1st-semester last year, having as many as 35+ missing assignments in several classes are now on the honor roll this year! There was only one student out of the last 3 semesters who had more than 10 missing assignments this semester. Students who had the “deer in the headlights” look, full of panic and feeling overwhelmed are becoming independent and are organized.

In upcoming weeks, I will share some of the books and authors which have been invaluable to me. I may also share some of my strategies with you. For now, here are a few of the most important strategies you can get started with:

  • #1: Build a rapport with your students. Get to know them well. Know their story. Really “see” your students. I pray for my students all the time and ask the Lord to help me see them through His eyes. I know their strengths and weaknesses. I know what they want to do with their lives. I can envision the person they are on their way to becoming.
  • Help them see the value of what they are doing and why. It isn’t just an assignment for a grade sake. It is learning lifelong skills, preparing for the future, learning problem-solving skills and more.
  • Create a sense of structure for them. Especially in the lives of an ADHD, their world is too large. They see all the details but can’t organize it or see the whole picture. Providing a sense of structure or framework for thinking is critical for organizing their world. I have clear expectations, hold them accountable.
  • Have a great sense of humor. There will be good days and bad, but a great sense of humor helps maintain balance and sanity.
  • Provide a strong support system for your student and keep everyone on the same page. Most often, I use emails  (great for tracking data too). I have a para in the classrooms that the student struggles with. She lets me know what the lessons are, if the student has turned in homework, any needs or successes she observes. The student, para, teacher, parents and I all work together as a team.
  • Teach specific skills to address the EF dysfunction. Model those skills and strategies. For example: how to study for a test, how to remember information, how to write notes, how to find information in a textbook, what is main idea/what is a detail, how often to clean out the locker, what papers to keep and get rid of, how to manage school papers and folder, when to clean out the folder, how to manage distractions, how to prepare a place to study at night. Specific lessons are taught on each of these topics. I also teach specific lessons on Visible Thinking (how to think and how to think about what you are thinking about). Don’t assume your student knows this and can apply it by the time they are in middle school. It sounds strange to those of us who do these things automatically, but it may not come naturally for EF students.
  • Scaffold learning. Support heavily initially, but gradually diminish support. Teach the student to think and do for themselves. Celebrate success, both privately and in class. Foster independence. I tell my students, “My job is to work myself out of a job.”
  • Teach students to use resources which make their life easier. Did you know that Google Docs has a feature where you can speak directly into the computer, Chromebook or other device and it types the words into the document? It works just as well as DragonSpeak. Bookshare.org is a great resource for students with disabilities. It even has audio textbooks. Some of our other textbooks are online…no more lost textbooks. One of our students kept losing his homework. He now scans his homework and saves it on Drive and shares it with the teacher. No more lost homework. Google Docs also has an add-in feature called EasyBib. Bibliographies can be created within minutes. Kindle and Audible are also great technology resources.
  • My Skills Math group is now using Ablenet Equals mathematics program which is designed especially special education students in K-12. In one semester, we have seen nearly a 40% increase in academic understanding in 3/4 of our students and a 17% increase in the student with the smallest percentage of progress. This curriculum is using multi-sensory learning, reinforces vocabulary, is sequential and is very structured. It not only is great for low functioning students, it also supports their executive functioning with all the visuals it includes. The data collection tools, worksheets and assessments are great! It even has goals and objectives for IEPs.

So, you see, I’ve been in a great growth pattern myself over the last couple of years but am learning a great deal in supporting my students who have a variety of disabilities. Here are a few of the successful stories from last year to date:

  1. One of my students was so successful, we discontinued services. It took him a while to feel comfortable with the idea. He said he loved my class so much and didn’t want to leave. He occasionally comes to see me just to say hi and to let me know he misses me. (Awww, warm fuzzies over this kiddo. Got to love a kid who loves his teacher).
  2. Three-fourths of my Skills Math (the high group) from last year are now in the mainstream math classroom.
  3. Some of my students diminished services 50% from last year.
  4. Every single student on my caseload from last year to this year have dramatically reduced or even eliminated late and missing assignments! (YAY! The regular ed teachers sure notice this one).
  5. Every one of the students are now more independent, are using technology to improve their organizational skills, need less adult support to maintain those skills and are taking personal responsibility for their learning.

Most importantly, I give 100% credit to God for His wisdom. He put me in this position. I am so very thankful to be given the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of my students. He gives me wisdom, patience, and understanding on how to work with these individuals. It is because of His wisdom that these strategies were first implemented, then by His grace that I was given an opportunity to go back to college to learn about the research, best practices, and new strategies. Next, I am thankful to be working in a great school district with awesome co-workers! How many people can go to work and love their job and nearly 100% of the people they work with. Even on my worst day, I still love my job….like most sped teachers, I could do with having less paperwork, but that is another blog for another day. For now, I am blessed and am loving the opportunity to work with MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS!